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Which European Countries have identity cards with NFC?

One question we often get is which European countries have identity cards with NFC chips that ReadID can read. If you have one in your hand then checking if it has a NFC chip is easy: simply look for the ICAO chip logo.

eMRTD-logo-CanvasThis logo can also be found on ePassports and indicates an ICAO 9303-compliant NFC chip. ICAO 9303 is the UN’s international standard for passports and identity cards.

Background on identity cards in Europe

We focus here on identity cards in Europe, and specifically on the European Economic Area (EU plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway), UK and Switzerland, since these all follow EU standards. Identity cards are considered travel documents, and they have a standardised lay-out, similar to passports. But contrary to passports, the EU did not enforce usage of the ICAO 9303 standard for identity cards until 2019. As a result, there are currently at least 86 different versions of identity cards in circulation in EU, and some countries issue quite unsecure identity cards. To illustrate this, the UK decided to no longer accept EU identity cards per 1 October 2021 because of concerns with fake EU identity cards. Please note the UK does not differentiate between secure identity cards, with a ICAO 9303 NFC chip, and unsecure identity cards.

However, in August 2019 the EU decided to strengthen and standardise security features for identity cards from the different member states. Regulation (EU) 2019/1157 stipulates that all member states must follow the ICAO 9303 standards when issuing identity cards including an NFC chip with a face image inside.

Most European countries that introduced the new generation identity cards already made sure that these had an ICAO compliant NFC chip, also before this new regulation. The new regulation ensures that countries with older and less secure identity cards will also replace these in the coming years. Member states had two years (until August 2021) to adopt the regulation, and stop issuing non-compliant identity cards. Note that the regulation does not mean that member states are obliged to issue identity cards to their citizens, but if they do, these have to be compliant.


Which countries have identity cards are compatible with ReadID?

In August 2021, 28 out of the 32 countries (EEA, UK, and Switzerland) had identity cards with an ICAO-compliant Machine-Readable Zone. Among these 28, 21 also had an ICAO-compliant NFC chip. Identity cards are normally valid for 10 years. Some countries started issuing them less than 10 years ago, so they have both the compliant and non-compliant versions in circulation. These include Spain, Italy, Belgium, and Poland.

ReadID works with all ICAO-compliant identity cards in Europe. This means that ReadID can read the contactless chip of the identity cards from 21 countries, verify their authenticity, and check for clones. The map below shows which countries:

  • Read & verify (Dark green): ReadID can read and verify the identity cards. We have all the needed country signing certificates by default.

  • Read only (Light green): ReadID can read the identity cards, but the country certificate list we use by default does not have the needed certificates for verification.

  • No chip (Light gray): identity cards have no (supported) contactless chip.

  • No identity card (Dark gray): the country does not issue identity cards.

Increasing coverage

Through the above-mentioned Regulation (EU) 2019/1157, the percentage of compatible identity cards will increase over time. The ‘mixed’ countries have stopped issuing non-compatible identity cards, and they will expire in the coming years, leading to an expected increase in compliant identity cards. We would like to mention a few countries in particular:

  • Belgium, Cyprus, Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Croatia, Czech, Estonia, Romania, Austria, and Germany are the ‘mixed’ countries have both ReadID compatible and non-compatible identity cards.

  • Germany has just started to issue ICAO compliant identity cards since 2021 August 2, which can be read and verified by ReadID. Before that, the identity cards already had an NFC chip, but not an ICAO 9303 compliant. Therefore, ReadID cannot read those older identity cards (yet).

  • Ireland has passport cards, comparable to identity cards.

How did we create the map?

There is no authoritative source of all identity documents worldwide, and certainly not a publicly available one that contains details on the contactless chip implementation. We combined knowledge from public sources, non-public sources, our own testing data and ReadID Analytics data to make this overview. ReadID Analytics contains anonymous logging information that we use to improve ReadID, including chip characteristics and whether or not an MRZ scan or NFC read was successful.

We provide this overview as-is, without any form of guarantee. We appreciate it if you let us know if you notice mistakes or outdated information via documents@innovalor.nl.

If you’d like access to a list of countries and some more details, then we have a summary available that you can download. We also have a more detailed whitepaper, for our customers and partners.


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